Saturday 24th February 2018,

Reading List: Media Industries, History and Convergence (Radio/TV/Film/Internet)

UPDATE: For recent media industries books (2010-2013), visit Alisa Perren’s blog HERE.

I’m currently writing the proposal for my dissertation, (very) tentatively titled: “Selling Independent New Media: Web Series and the Industry in a Time of Change.” (For those not in the academy, don’t ask what a proposal is: it’s a boring answer). As a graduate student, one of your constant anxieties is missing something: not knowing some key source, fact or theory.

As I noted in my previous post with a reading list, I found it really hard to find good bibliographies when trying to figure out what was important to read. The best sources were obviously the notes sections of books and current articles, and it required a lot of compilation! I see no reason not to share the fruits of my labor; there’s no value to a list of books.

Below is my working bibliography for the dissertation. This is just the foundational stuff: almost all of them books, with a few articles thrown in that I’ve needed to cite in my proposal. If I missed anything, put it in the comments or email me!

And, as before, citations are inelegantly formatted in terms of style; there will be many errors. This is just an entry point, not a bible!


Abercrombie, N. & Longhurst, B. (1998). Audiences: A Sociological Theory of Performance and Imagination. London, UK: SAGE Publications.

Acham, C. (2004). Revolution Televised: Prime Time and the Struggle for Black Power. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Althusser, L. (1998). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. In J. Storey (Ed.), Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: a reader (pp. 153-164). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Anderson, C. (1994). HollywoodTV: the studio system in the fifties. Austin, TX: University of Texas.

Anderson, C. (2008). The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York, NY: Hyperion.

Andrejevic, M. (2004). Reality TV: the work of being watched. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Andrejevic, M. (2008). Watching Television Without Pity: The productivity of online fans. Television and New Media, 9, 24-46.

Andrejevic, M. (2009). Critical Media Studies 2.0: an interactive upgrade. Interactions: Studies in Communication and Culture, 1, 35-51.

Alvey, M. (1997). The Independents: Rethinking the Television Studio System. In L. Spigel & M. Curtin (Eds.), The Revolution Wasn’t Televised: Sixties Television and Social Conflict (pp. 139-158), New York, NY: Routledge.

Ang, I. (1985). Watching Dallas: soap opera and the melodramatic imagination. New York, NY: Routledge.

Ang, I. (1991). Desperately Seeking the Audience. New York, NY: Routledge.

Askwith, I.D. (2007). Television 2.0: Reconceptualizing TV as an Engagement Medium. (Master’s Thesis). Retrieved from FastArc.

Atton, C. (2002). Alternative Media. London, UK: Sage.

Auletta, K. (2010). Googled: The End of the World as We Know It. London, UK: Virgin Books.

Babe, R.E. (2009). Cultural Studies and Political Economy: Toward a New Integration. Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield.

Bacon-Smith, C. (1992). Enterprising women: television fandom and the creation of popular myth. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Banet-Weiser, S., Chris, C., & Freitas, A., eds. (2007). Cable visions: television beyond broadcasting. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Banks, J. & Deuze, M. (2009). Co-creative labour. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 12, 419-431.

Banks, J. & Humphreys, S. (2008). The Labour of User Co-Creators: Emergent Social Network Markets?. Convergence, 14, 401-418.

Barker, D. (1985). Television Production Techniques in Communication. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 2, 234-246.

Barnouw, E. (1978). The sponsor: Notes on a modern potentate. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Barnouw, E. (1990). Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television (2nd Ed). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Benjamin, W. (2009). The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility. In D. Preziosi (Ed.), The art of art history: a critical anthology (pp. 435-443). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Benkler, Y. (2007). The Wealth of Networks. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bennet, J. & Strange, N. (2011). Television as Digital Media. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Berenstein, R.J. (2002). TV Performance, Intimacy and Immediacy (1945-1955). In J. Friedman (Ed.), Reality squared: televisual discourses on the real (pp. 25-49). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Boddy, W. (1990). Alternative television in the United States. Screen, 31, 91-101.

Boddy, W. (1992). Fifties television: the industry and its critics. Chicago: University of Illinois.

Boddy. W. (2004). New media and popular imagination: launching radio, television, and digital media in the United States. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Boellstorff, T. (2008). Coming of age in Second Life: An anthropologist explores the virtually human. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bogle, D. (2001). Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Bolter, J.D. & Grusin, R. (2000). Remediation: understanding new media. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Bordwell, D. (1985). The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style & Mode of Production to 1960. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Bowser, P. & Spence, L. (2000). Writing Himself Into History: Oscar Micheaux, His Silent Films, And His Audiences. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

boyd, d., & Ellison, N.B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13. Retrieved from

boyd, d. (2008). Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, Identity, and Digital Media: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning (pp. 119-142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bourdieu, P. (2001). The Forms of Capital. In Granovetter, M.S. & Swedberg, R. (Eds.), The sociology of economic life (2nd Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Brown, L. (1971). Television: the business behind the box. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Bruns, A. (2008a). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Bruns, A. (2008b). Reconfiguring Television for a Networked, Produsage Context. Media International Australia, 126, 82-94.

Buonanno, M. & Radice, J. (2008). The Age of Television: Experiences and Theories. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books.

Burgess, J. (2006). Hearing Ordinary Voices: Cultural Studies, Vernacular Creativity and Digital Storytelling. Continuum, 20, 201-214.

Burgess, J. & Green, J. (2009). YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

Caldwell, J.T. (1995). Televisuality: style, crisis, and authority in American television. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Caldwell, J.T. (2002). New Media/Old Augmentations: Television, the Internet, and Interactivity. In A. Jerslev (Ed.), Realism and `Reality’ in Film and Media. Copenhagen, Denmark: Museum Tusculanum Press.

Caldwell, J.T. (2004). Convergence Television: Aggregating Form and Repurposing Content in the Culture of Conglomeration. In L. Spigel & J. Olsson (Eds.), Television after TV: Essays on a medium in transition (pp. 45-56). Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.

Caldwell, J.T. (2006). Critical Industrial Practice: Branding, Repurposing, and the Migratory Patterns of Industrial Texts. Television New Media, 7, 99-134.

Caldwell, J.T. (2008). Production Culture: industrial reflexivity and critical practice in film and television. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.

Campbell, J.E. (2004). Getting it on Online: Cyberspace, Gay Male Sexuality, and Embodied Identity. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press.

Campbell, J.E. (2005). Outing PlanetOut: surveillance, gay marketing and internet affinity portals. New Media & Society. 7, 663-683.

Carter, B. (2007). Desperate Networks. New York, NY: Random House.

Castells, M. (2000). The Rise of the Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Cerwonka, A. & Malkki, L.H. (2007). Improvising Theory: Process and Temporality in Ethnographic Fieldwork. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,.

Christian, A.J. (2011). The Problem of YouTube. Flow. 13(8), Retrieved from

Collins, P.H. (2000). Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York, NY: Routledge.

Coleman, R.M. (2000). African American Viewers and the Black Situation Comedy: situating racial humor. New York, NY: Garland Publications.

Coleman, R.M. (2002). Say it loud!: African-American audiences, media, and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.

Couldry, N. & Curran, J. (2003). Contesting media power: alternative media in a networked world. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield.

Couldry, N. (2004). Transvaluing Media Studies Or, Beyond the Myth of the Mediated Centre. In J. Curran & D. Morley (Eds.), Media and Cultural Theory: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 177-194). New York, NY: Routledge.

Creeber, G. (2004). Serial Television: Big Drama on the Small Screen. London, UK: British Film Institute.

Curtin, M. (1995). Redeeming the Wasteland: Television Documentary and Cold War Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Curtin, M. (2009). Matrix Media. In G. Turner & J. Tay (Eds.), Television Studies After TV: Understanding Television in the Post-Broadcast Era. New York, NY: Routledge.

Dates, J.L. & Barlow, W. (1990). Split image: African Americans in the mass media. Washington, DC: Howard University Press.

Dávila. A. (2001). Latinos, Inc.: The Marketing and Making of a People. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Davis, G. & Needham, G. (Eds.) (2009). Queer Television: Theories, Histories, Politics. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Dawson, M. (2011). Convergence Television and the Digital Short, In J. Bennett, N. Strange, & L. Spigel (Eds.), Television as Digital Media. Raleigh: Duke University Press.

Dayan, D. & Katz, E. (1994). Media Events: the live broadcasting of history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

De Certeau, M. (1984). The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Deuze, M. (2007). Media Work. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

Deuze, M. (2010). Managing Media Work. New York, NY: Sage.

De Vany, A.S. (2003). Hollywood Economics: How Extreme Uncertainty Shapes the Film Industry. New York, NY: Routledge.

Donaton, S. (2004). Madison & Vine: Why Entertainment and Advertising Industries Must Converge to Survive. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Dornfeld, B. (1998). Producing Public Television. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Douglas, S.J. (1987). Inventing American Broadcasting, 1899-1922. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Douglas, S.J. (2004). Listening in: radio and the American imagination. Minneapolis, MN. University of Minnesota Press.

Downing, J. (2001). Radical media: rebellious communication and social movements. London, UK: Sage.

Einstein, M. (2004). Media Diversity: Economics, Ownership and the FCC. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Evans, A. (2009). How Homo Can Hollywood Be?: Remaking Queer Authenticity from To Wong Foo to Brokeback Mountain. Journal of Film and Video, 61(4): 41-54.

Evans, D.S. (2008). Economics of the Online Advertising Industry. Review of Network Economics. 7(3): 359-391

Evans, D.S. (2009). Online Advertising Industry: Economics, Evolution, and Privacy.  The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 23(3): 37-60.

Ewen, S. (2001). Captains of consciousness: advertising and the social roots of the consumer culture. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Fabian, J. (2008). Ethnography as Commentary: Writing from the Virtual Archive. Raleigh: Duke University Press.

Feuer, J. (1983). The Concept of Live Television: Ontology as Ideology. In E.A. Kaplan (Ed.), Regarding Television: critical approaches, an anthology (pp. 12-21). Los Angeles: American Film Institute.

Fiske, J. (1989). Reading the Popular. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fiske, J. (1987). Television Culture. New York, NY: Routledge.

Fiske, J. (1992). The Cultural Economy of Fandom. In L.A. Lewis (Ed.), The Adoring Audience (pp. 30-49). New York, NY: Routledge.

Freedman, D. (2006). Internet Transformations: ‘old’ media resilience in the ‘new media’ revolution. In J. Curran & D. Morley (Eds.), Media and Cultural Theory (pp. 275-290). New York, NY: Routledge.

Freedman, D. (2008). The Politics of Media Policy. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

Fox, S.R. (1997). The mirror makers: a history of American advertising and its creators. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Gamson, J. (1998). Freaks talk back: Tabloid Talk Shows and Sexual Nonconformity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gans, H. (1979). Deciding What’s News: a study of CBS evening news, NBC nightly news, Newsweek, and Time. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Gans, H. (2004). Democracy and the News. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gauntlett, D. (2011). Making is Connecting: The Social Meaning of Creativity, from DIY and Knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

Geertz, C. 1973. Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture. In C. Geertz (Ed.), The Interpretation of Cultures (pp. 3-30). New York, NY: Basic Books.

Geirland, J. & Sonesh-Kedar, E. (1999). Digital Babylon: How the Geeks, the Suits, and the Ponytails tried to bring Hollywood to the Internet. New York, NY: Arcade.

Gerbarg, D. (2008). Television Goes Digital. New York, NY: Springer.

Gillian, J. (2011). Television and New Media: Must-Click TV. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gillepsie, T. (2010). The politics of platforms. New Media & Society, 12: 347-364.

Gitelman, L. (2006). Always already new: media, history and the data of culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gitlin, T. (1979). Prime Time Ideology: The Hegemonic Process in Television Entertainment. Social Problems, 26(3): 251-66.

Gitlin, T. (1983). Inside Prime Time. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. (2006). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. New York, NY: Gruyter.

Goldhaber, M. (1997). The Attention Economy and the Net. First Monday, 2(4). Retrieved from

Gray, H. (1995). Watching race: television and the struggle for blackness. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Gray, H.S. (2005). Cultural Moves: African Americans and the Politics of Representation. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.

Gray, J. (2005). Antifandom and the Moral Text. The American Behavioral Scientist. 48(7): 840-858.

Green, J. (2008). Why do they call it TV when it’s not on the box? ‘New’ television services and old television functions. Media International Australia, 126, 95-105

Greenberg, J.M. (2010). From Betamax to Blockbuster: Video Stores and the Invention of Movies on Video. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gregg, M. (2008). The Normalisation of Flexible Female Labour in the Information Economy. Feminist Media Studies, 8(3): 285-299.

Grindstaff, L. (2002). The Money Shot: Trash, class, and the making of TV talk shows. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Gross, L. (2001). Up from invisibility: lesbians, gay men, and the media in America. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Hall, S. (1997). Representation: cultural representations and signifying practices. London, UK: Sage.

Hammersley, M. & Atkinson, P. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in Practice, 3rd Ed. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hartley, J. (1999). Uses of Television. London, UK: Routledge.

Hartley, J. & Fiske, J. (2003). Reading television. London, UK: Psychology Press.

Hartley, J., ed. (2005). Creative Industries. New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.

Hartley, J. (2009). The Uses of Digital Literacy St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.

Havens, T., Lotz, A.D., & Tinic, S. (2009). Critical Media Industry Studies: A Research Approach. Communication, Culture and Critique, 2, 234-253.

Hay, J. & Ouelette, L. (2008). Better Living Through Reality TV: Television and Post-Welfare Citizenship. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Hebdige, D. (1979). Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hildebrand, L. (2009). Inherent Vice: Bootleg Histories of Videotape and Copyright. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Hilmes, M. (1999).  Hollywood & Broadcasting: From Radio to Cable. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Hilmes, M. (1997). Radio voices: American broadcasting, 1922-1952. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

Hindman, M.S. (2009). The Myth of Digital Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hine, C. (2000). Virtual Ethnography. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Holt, J. & Perren, A. (2009). Media industries: history, theory, and method. New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell.

Horkheimer, M & Adorno, T. (1979). The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception. In M. Horkheimer and T. Adorno. Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Verso Press.

Humphreys, S., Fitzgerald, B.F., Banks, J.A. & Suzor, N.P. (2005). Fan based production for computer games: User led innovation, the ‘drift of value’ and the negotiation of intellectual property rights. Media International Australia, 114, 16-29.

Hunt, D. (Ed.). (2005). Channeling blackness: studies on television and race in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Jackson, J. (2005). Real Black: Adventures in Racial Sincerity. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Jaffe, J. (2005). Life after the 30-second spot: energize your brand with a bold mix of alternatives to traditional advertising. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Jarrett, K. (2008a). Beyond Broadcast Yourself: The future of YouTube. Media International Australia, 126, 132-144.

Jarrett, K. (2008b). ‘Interactivity is evil!’: A critical investigation of Web 2.0. First Monday 13(3), Retrieved from

Jenkins, H. (1992). Textual poachers: television fans & participatory culture. New York: Routledge.

Jenkins, H. (2006a). Fans, bloggers, and gamers: exploring participatory culture. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006b). Convergence culture: where old and new media collide. New York: NYU Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006c). The wow climax: tracing the emotional impact of popular culture. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Jenkins, H. (2009a, August 23). The Message of Twitter: ‘Here It Is’ and ‘Here I Am.’. Confessions of an Aca-Fan: The official weblog of Henry Jenkins. URL Retrieved from

Jenkins, H. (2009b, February 11). If It Doesn’t Spread, It’s Dead. Confessions of an Aca/Fan.

Jenson, J. (1992). Fandom as Pathology. In L.A. Lewis (Ed.), The Adoring Audience (pp. 9-29). New York, NY: Routledge.

Jhally, S. (1987). The codes of advertising: fetishism and the political economy of meaning in the consumer society. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.

Jhally, S. & Lewis, J. (1992). Enlightened racism: the Cosby show, audiences, and the myth of the American dream. Boulder: Westview Press.

Johnson, E.P. (2003). Appropriating Blackness: Performance and the Politics of Authenticity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.

Katz, E. & Liebes, T. (1993). The export of meaning: cross-cultural readings of Dallas. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.

Katz, E. & Scannell, P. (2009). The End of Television: Its Impact on the World (So Far). London: Sage.

Kaye, B.K. & Medoff, N.J. (2001). Just A Click Away: Advertising on the Internet. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Keith, M.C. (2002). Turn On…Tune In: The Rise and Demise of Commercial Underground Radio. In M. Hilmes & J. Loviglio (Eds.), Radio reader: essays in the cultural history of radio (pp. 389-404). New York, NY: Routledge.

Kellner, D. (1990). Television and the Crisis of Democracy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

King, G. (2009). Indiewood, USA: where Hollywood meets independent cinema. New York, NY: IB Taurus.

Kompare, D. (2010). Reruns 2.0: Revising Repetition for Multiplatform Television Distribution. Journal of Popular Film and Television, 38(2): 79-83.

Kunz, W. (2007). Culture Conglomerates: Consolidation in the Motion Picture and TV Industries. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Laird, P.W. (2001). Advertising progress: American business and the rise of consumer marketing. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Lange, P. G. (2007). Publicly private and privately public: Social networking on YouTube. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1). Retrieved from

Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Lehu, J. (2007). Branded entertainment: product placement & brand strategy in the entertainment business. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Lewin, E. & Leap, W.L. (Eds.). (1996). Out in The Field: Reflections of Lesbian and Gay Anthropologists. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Locke, C., Levine, R., Searls, D., & Weinberger, D. (2001). The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Long, G. (2007). Transmedia Storytelling: Business, Aesthetics and Production at the Jim Henson Company. (Master’s Thesis).  MIT.

Lotz, A.D. (2007). The television will be revolutionized. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Lotz, A.D. (2009). Beyond Prime Time: Television Programming in the Post-Network Era. New York, NY: Routledge.

MacDonald, J.F. (1992). Blacks and white TV: African Americans in television since 1948. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall Publishers.

Mann, D. (2008). Hollywood Independents: The Postwar Talent Takeover. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Mann, D. (2010). Next-Gen Web Workers: LG15’s Industrial Self-Reflexivity on Steroids. Journal of Popular Film and Television. 38(2): 89-94.

Marvin, C. (1988). When old technologies were new: thinking about communications in the late nineteenth century. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Mayer, M. (1958). Madison Avenue, USA. New York, NY: Harper.

McChesney, R.W. (1999). Rich media, poor democracy: communication politics in dubious times. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

McDonald, P.D. (2007). Video and DVD Industries. London, UK: BFI Press.

McLuhan, M. & Powers, B.R. (1989). The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

McLuhan, M. (2001). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New York, NY: Routledge.

McRobbie, A. (1980). Settling accounts with subcultures. London: Screen Education.

Mercer, K. (1993). Dark and Lovely too: Black gay men in independent film. In M. Gever, P. Parmar & J. Greyson (Eds), Queer looks : perspectives on lesbian and gay film and video (pp. 238-257). New York: Routledge.

Miller, D. & Slater, D. (2000). The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford, UK: Berg.

Mittell, J. (2004). Genre and Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mittell, J. (2006a). Lost in an Alternate Reality. Flow, 4(7),

Mittell, J. (2006b, July 20). The Lost Experience – Act II, Convergence Culture Consortium Blog. Retrieved from

Mittell, J. (2006c). Narrative Complexity in Contemporary American Television. The Velvet Light Trap, 58, 29-40.

Mottram, J. (2006). The Sundance kids: how the mavericks took back Hollywood. New York, NY: Faber and Faber.

Mullen, M. (2003). The Rise of Cable Programming in the United States: Revolution or Evolution?. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Mulvey, L. (2000). Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. In A. Jones (Ed.), The feminism and visual culture reader (pp. 44-53). London, UK: Psychology Press.


Murphy, S.C. (2000). Lurking and Looking: Webcams and the Construction of Cybervisuality. In J. Fullerton, & A. Söderbergh-Widding (Eds.), Moving images: from Edison to the webcam (pp. 173-180). Sydney, Australia: John Libbey.

Napoli, P.M. (2003). Audience Economics: Media Institutions and the Audience Marketplace. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Nader, L. (1982). Up the Anthropologist: Perspectives Gained from Studying Up. In J.B. Cole (Ed.), Anthropology for the Eighties (pp. 353-362). New York, NY: Free Press.

Newcomb, H. (1974). TV: The Most Popular Art. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.

Newcomb, H. (2005). Reflections on TV: The Most Popular Art. In G.R. Edgerton & B.G. Rose (Eds.), Thinking outside the box: a contemporary television genre reader. Lexington-Fayette, KY: University Press of Kentucky.

Newton, E. (1972). Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Parkerson, M. (1993). Birth of a Notion: Towards Black Gay and Lesbian Imagery in Film and Video. In M. Gever, P. Parmar & J. Greyson (Eds), Queer looks : perspectives on lesbian and gay film and video (pp. 234-7). New York: Routledge.

Perren, A. (2010). Business as Unusual: Conglomerate-Sized Challenges for Film and Television in the Digital Arena, Journal of Popular Film and Television, 38(2): 72-78.

Petersen, S.M. (2008). Loser Generated Content: From participation to exploitation, First Monday, 13(3). Retrieved from

Please, O. (1958). Responsibilities of American Advertising: private control and public influence, 1920-1940. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Presbey, F. (1929). History and Development of Advertising. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Radway, J. (1984). Reading the romance: Women, patriarchy, and popular literature. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Rafaeli, S. & Sudweeks, F. (1997). Networked Interactivity. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 2(4). Retrieved from

Rheingold, H. (2000). The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rizzo, T. (2007). Programming Your Own Channel: An Archaeology of the Playlist. In A. Kenyon (Ed.) TV Futures: Digital Television Policy in Australia (pp. 107-131), Melbourne, Melbourne University Press.

Rodowick, D. N. (2007). The Virtual Life of Film. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ross, A. (1991). Strange weather: culture, science, and technology in the age of limits. New York, NY: Verso Press.

Ross, A. (2009). Nice Work If You Can Get It: Life and Labor in Precarious Times. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Ross, S.M. (2008). Managing Millennials: Teen Expectations of Tele-Participation, Beyond the Box: Television and the Internet (pp. 124-172). London, UK: Blackwell.

Rothenbuhler, E.W. & McCourt, T. (2002). Radio Redefines Itself, 1948-1962. In M. Hilmes & J. Loviglio (Eds.), Radio reader: essays in the cultural history of radio. New York, NY: Routledge.

Rubin, G. (2002). Studying Sexual Subcultures: Excavating the Ethnography of Gay Communities in Urban North America. In E. Lewin & W.L. Leap (Eds.), Out in Theory: The Emergence of Lesbian and Gay Anthropology. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Russo, J.L. (2009). User-Penetrated Content: Fan Video in the Age of Convergence. Cinema Journal, 48(4): 125-130.

Salen, K. & Zimmerman, E. (2003). Rules of play: game design fundamentals.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Savage, J. and Julien, I. (1994). Queering the pitch: a conversation (a transcript). Critical Quarterly, 36: 1–12.

Schaefer, E. (1999). Bold! Daring! Shocking! True: A History of Exploitation Films, 1919-1959. Raleigh, NC: Duke University Press.

Schatz, T. (1998). The Genius of the System: Hollywood Filmmaking in the Studio Era. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

Schiller, H.I. (1971). Mass Communications and American Empire. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Schudson, M. (1984). Advertising, the Uneasy Persuasion: its dubious impact on American society. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Schudson, M. (1995). The Power of News. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

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About The Author

Aymar Jean Christian is assistant professor of communication at Northwestern University. He writes about media and society for a number of publications. For more information, click the "About" tab at the top of the page.


  1. Geoffrey Long December 20, 2010 at 12:27 pm

    Best of luck, Aymar! Let me know if you have any questions regarding my thesis, and I’ll help if I can.