Friday 27th May 2016,


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Innovation Beyond Networks

Book Manuscript (in review)

whatever this is web seriesCredit: Whatever this is (2013), Rascal Department

Television, outside traditional television, is as open as ever.

Open TV introduces readers to a trailblazing generation of storytellers. Based on interviews with 134 writers, producers, entrepreneurs and network executives, I argue independent web series are critical agents in the story of how the Internet opened the television market. New media allows indie producers to innovate in the creation, execution and release of new series, refocusing development on the producers, fans and sponsors network executives historically underserve. Open access to distribution via the web supports creative freedom for producers, diverse forms of storytelling for marginalized communities and more dynamic ways of releasing and showcasing TV shows for fans, brands and sponsors.

YouTube alone hosts hundreds of thousands of showrunners, comedians, talk show hosts, video game commenters, makeup and shopping gurus, pop culture and political commentators, each with millions of followers. Beyond YouTube, producers from diverse groups and communities are making series for platforms like Vimeo and Funny or Die and user-generated networks like Maker Studios, Machinima, and Fullscreen. Netflix and Amazon reconfigure original series development by giving producers more autonomy and larger episode orders while incorporating viewer taste through big data. Social media platforms, primarily Facebook, Twitter and Tumblr, give creative workers tools for speaking to and organizing fans. Kickstarter, Indiegogo and small crowdfunding sites provide platforms for efficient financing campaigns. New advertising technologies allow distributors of “spreadable” media to make money for pennies per view. Productions shoot all around the country, with hubs in New York and Los Angeles but outposts in Atlanta, Chicago, Washington D.C., New Orleans and college campuses across the nation.

In the networked economy, major studios and networks are failing to meet rising demands from consumers, ease pressures on workers and maintain cultural relevance. Paralyzed by industrial systems for developing, rating and rewarding art, they focus on maintaining their brands and profits, empowering top producers, executives and shareholders while releasing a few quality but many more cheap programs that fail to reflect a diversifying and struggling nation. Meanwhile media workers face underpaid, temporary work. Audiences have more options but fewer real choices. Media conglomerates are having success profiting from distribution in a digital world. Left behind, independent producers, entrepreneurs and fans and are creating their own media system. This is their story.

The open TV market responds faster and with greater accountability to the desires – and sometimes the needs – of producers, audiences and sponsors than traditional television, where series development rests in the hands of a few network executives and the advertisers who finance series. The web and its agents inspire us with a vision of art after industry failure, where workers, fans and entrepreneurs work together to pilot stories reflecting their own interests and values. They are not the answer to the crisis in media ownership and distribution, but they suggest vitality outside a system that justifies its dominance through aggressive marketing and lobbying. Indeed, with this knowledge, the future of media is not dire or in crisis but rather waiting for the market, the state or workers themselves to restructure industry relations toward a fuller, fairer future.

Indie TV: Where Creators and Fans Pilot New Shows

For an introduction to the kinds of producers and series in the book, check out the video below from a panel I moderated at Transforming Hollywood 5, a one-day conference convened by Henry Jenkins and Denise Mann at UCLA on April 4, 2014.


Peer-reviewed journal articles, chapters and essays

Indie TV: Innovation in Series Development. 2014. Media Independence: working with freedom or working for free?. James Bennett & Niki Strange, eds. New York, NY: Routledge.

This chapter explores the value of independent production within America’s highly concentrated and commercialized television industry, focusing on three web series—High Maintenance, Whatever this is and Easy to Assemble—alongside other notable cases, to explore the pilot process and upfront financing, which support US television networks’ access to US$70 billion in advertising.

Any consideration of the value and function of the independent television market must contend with who has power in corporate series development and how power is brought to bear in making decisions. In traditional television, network development executives shape series pitched by producers and their companies, but executives’ clients are advertising agencies, executives at media conglomerates and, by extension, shareholders of media companies. Despite the incredible rise of fandom and independent television series production, a small group of network executives continue to hold sway over the supply (creative production), consumption (fans or audiences) and financing (brands) of television content. This power imbalance and its inefficiencies were less visible before deregulation expanded the number of channels and original series on cable and the Internet. Today it has grown irksome to nearly everyone involved in the development process, including the decision makers themselves.

Indie TV producers invert these dynamics, placing power in development in the hands of creative workers, their fans and brands. By “indie TV” I describe an under-counted segment of producers who create mostly short-form serials and release them through YouTube, Vimeo or other online platforms for web distribution. They comprise amateurs, film students and graduates, and television professionals (inside and outside Hollywood unions, above and below the line) who produce video for themselves, their communities or, most rarely, for independent and corporate online and TV networks. This sector is defined by limited access and amounts of capital, supplied by algorithmic advertising, licensing, crowd-financing, subscription or sponsorship. Extremely under-capitalized, the indie market nevertheless models the kind of open, and diverse, TV ecosystem the deregulated landscape was intended to fertilize, before corporations purchased profitable distribution channels, increasing the scale of production but not always wages, creative freedom or audience and brand input. This chapter will show how pilot production, upfront monetization and audience selling are ill-suited to an age of online networking and market fragmentation; how network control over programming falls short of balancing art, culture and commerce; and how independent television development supports innovation in series creation by empowering producers, fans and brands frustrated with network control.


Flow: Post-Network Television Series, 2013

Open TV: Rescue Pilots from Development Hell. 2013. Flow. 18(8). October 7.

Considering the limits of the pilot process for satisfying producers, advertisers and audiences and the possibility independent television might correct inefficiencies and inequalities.

The Black TV Crisis and the Next Generation. 2013. Flow. 18(5). August 27.

Considering the limits of cable distribution, how it failed to diversify television’s producers and stories, and the new generation of digital storytellers who might help shift power relations.

Zombies Beat Humans on Television. 2013. Flow. 18(2). July 15.

Considering the limits of “quality TV” storytelling for supporting representations of, and jobs for, women and minorities.

Valuing Post-Network Television. 2013. Flow. 17(11). May 6.

Considering the limits of “the golden age of television” where producers and fans supposedly have more agency.

One Man Hollywood: The Decline of Black Creative Production in Post-Network Television. 2014. Khadijah Costeley White (co-author). From Madea to Media Mogul: Critical Perspectives on Tyler Perry. Karen Bowdre, TreaAndrea Russworm, and Samantha Sheppard, Eds. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Press.

Critics discuss Tyler Perry in two ways: his representations and his industry. While the former sparks lively debates about Perry’s portrayal of the black family, black women and men, the latter is often cast aside with simple references to his incredible wealth. We argue Perry’s multiple roles in entertainment production and his successful self-positioning as a Hollywood outsider compels scholars to grapple with how media corporations have embraced the “one man Hollywood” niche producer model for its low-cost efficiency in a fragmented marketplace. Like famed director Oscar Micheaux before him, Perry has consistently pointed to the importance of black audiences, parlaying his grasp of this niche into an ever more powerful and complex production and distribution apparatus. Having this one-man media empire – in theatre, film and television – gives Hollywood a consistent and safe outlet to market to black audiences in a creative economy made aggressively competitive by deregulation and conglomeration. But Perry’s dominance of the space, and his steely focus on growing his own properties, limits America’s range of representations.

The Web As Television Reimagined? Online Networks and the Pursuit of Legacy Media. 2012. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 36 (4).

This essay explores the history of online video networks from the 1990s to the mid-2000s, from American Cybercast to YouTube. Television’s weakness at the turn of the century opened a rhetorical and economic space for entrepreneurs eager to curate and distribute web programs. These companies introduced various forms of experimentation they associated with the advantages of digital technologies, but they also maintained continuity with television’s business practices. This dialectic between old and new, continuity and change, insiders and outsiders, reflected the instability of television as a concept and the promise of the web as an alternative. Using articles in the trade press, this essay explores the history of episodic web programming—variously called web series, webisodes, bitcoms, web television and, in its earliest form, cybersoaps—as new media network executives hoped to replicate but also differentiate themselves from legacy media.

Beyond Big Video: The Instability of independent networks in a new media market. 2012. Continuum, 26 (1).

This essay explores the possibility of an online video market operating independent of conglomerations. At stake is whether new media can operate “democratically,” providing more equal distribution of control to producers and distributors within an unequal market. This is the story of a handful of these websites, all of which promise this possibility: Strike TV, My Damn Channel, KoldCast, Babelgum and Quarterlife. Their stories offer telling case studies of new media in their formative years. In the end, without industrial structures in place, independents must grapple with rapidly changing conditions, improvise business strategies and, ultimately, work with the mainstream, traditional structures to which they were, however superficially, in opposition. Independent distribution in early media emerges as a practice as much indebted to the old media as it pushes new forms of engagement, marketing and production.

Special thanks to Graeme Turner for his help with developing the article.

For a brief summary of the article, click here.

Fandom as Industrial Response: Producing Identity in an Independent Web Series. 2011.Transformative Works & Culture, 8.

This essay examines the development, production and distribution of a web series, The Real Girl’s Guide to Everything Else, which it frames as a fan-driven response to an industrial product, Sex and the City. As intermittent participants within the Hollywood industry, the series producers, a diverse group of lesbian and straight women of various ethnicities, positioned their series as a market-oriented product intended to reform the industry from its margins and participate in a growing new media economy. The essay calls for expanded notions of fan production, industry and fresh frameworks for analyzing the effects of digital distribution, especially for communities of color, women and sexual minorities.

For a brief summary of the article, click here.

Producing Television 2.0: Reinventing the Industry in MTV’s Valemont. 2011. National Communication Association 2011 Conference. New Orleans, LA. 17-20, November.

MTV’s web series Valemont marked a significant shift in traditional network practices: a piece of “branded entertainment” – sponsored by Verizon – and a web series with an alternate reality game featuring mobile extensions and involving Twitter, a fake university website, and, to a lesser extent, Facebook and YouTube.This essay narrates how Valemont proposed an alternative to traditional network development, production and distribution practices. First, through interviews, it introduces its production team, an independent working both within and outside the industry to reform it. The rest of the essay focuses on the series itself: its distribution platforms, its engagement with fans and its alternate reality game. ‘Valemont’ emerges as a novelty in the television landscape, an ambitious if politically limited effort to make the industry more flexible and engaged, between fans and producers, producers and sponsors, and networks and new forms of releasing content.

Special thanks to Denise Mann for her help developing this article.

Not TV, Not the Web: Mobile Video Between Openness and Control. 2012. Mobile Media Reader. Noah Arceneaux, ed. Bruges, Belgium: College of Europe.

This chapter focuses on the efforts of three distributors of independent web video – Vimeo, My Damn Channel, and Q3030 Networks – alongside larger video sites – YouTube, Hulu and Crackle – to show how navigating the mobile market involves negotiating complex industrial and technological considerations. I outline what these companies wanted from mobile distribution and how they conceptualized their needs in the months leading up to and directly following the government’s first official statement on net neutrality and its exception for wireless services.From their perspective, the realities of the mobile video market illuminate how new media arise in fractured markets, not fully open or closed to new and established entrants. This chapter analyzes a sector of the mobile video market in a specific, narrow period of time. In the end, the mobile device itself holds no inherent meaning or politics outside its market and government players, all of whom are still working out how to deliver mobile content.

Joe Swanberg, Intimacy and the Digital Aesthetic. 2011. Cinema Journal, 50 (4).

Using the works of Joe Swanberg, primarily LOL, and weaving in films from other directors, this paper argues for mumblecore as a distinct form of realism based on a “digital aesthetic,” an aesthetic not merely in style and form, but also in the themes emanating from this form. This digital aesthetic, a result of theories from film and new media history, supports what I call “networked film,” both of which make mumblecore distinct from prior attempts at realism in film and distinguish it as an early 21st century phenomenon.

Thanks to Leo Charney for advising me on this project.

For a brief summary of the article, click here.

Real Vlogs: The Rules and Meanings of Online Video.” 2009. First Monday, 14 (11).

This paper explores what the “rules” of vlogging (video blogging) are: the various visual and social practices viewers and creators understand and debate as either authentic or inauthentic on YouTube. It analyzes a small, random set of vlogs on YouTube and highlight several controversies around key celebrities on the site. This essay concludes by challenging whether conversations around authenticity will persist in dialogues about online video.

Special thanks to Paul Messaris for his help developing this article.

For a brief summary of the article, click here.

Camp 2.0: A Queer Performance of the Personal.” 2010. Communication, Culture and Critique. 13 (3).

Camp has a rich and complicated history, its meanings and forms periodically shifting. Camp is variously known as a style of communication, a subcultural social glue, or a political position. In its newest incarnation online, camp has morphed in ways that contradict, or at least deviate from, its historical understandings.Spurred by the structure of YouTube and broader social trends, performers are infusing sincerity, emotion and deeper meanings of selfhood into camp, breaking with historical precedent, challenging the meanings of camp and, perhaps, the nature of performance. Performers of camp must negotiate their own gender and sexual identities, their audience, their artistic style, their desire for fame, and their “sense of self” when making videos and maintaining their web presence. These interests collide to result in a form of queer performance which partially unravels, though sometimes imitates, the forms in the past. The results of these negotiations show up in both the statements performers make but also in the videos themselves – both how they are made and what content they broadcast.

Special thanks to Katherine Sender for counsel and support. Click above for a poster demonstration.

For a brief summary of the article, click here.

Independent Cinema in Hong Kong: Negotiating Independence, Navigating Global Markets and Defining the Nation. 2010. Lecture. SummerCulture Colloquium. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA.

Far from its heyday as the center of Asian film production, the market for Hong Kong cinema has changed drastically over the past ten years. Independent filmmaking — locally produced and shot — is experiencing a small revival, with the participation of the government and the local industry. Yet that market faces numerous challenges: a small and insufficient local box office, the global marketing power of China and, most significantly, a still nascent notion of Hong Kong identity, all of which prevent the forms from maturing achieving “independence.”